Founded in the 13th century, this powerful Muslim empire spread from its capital in Constantinople, taking massive holdings in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Asia, reaching its peak in the 17th century as a world power. As its influence declined in the 19th century, powerful European territories began taking advantage. The Crimean War and the Russo-Turkish War took enormous tolls on Turkish land holdings in Europe; her power and influence began to shrink even further. At the dawn of a new century, the ancient and noble Ottoman Empire appears to be in its twilight. One can only hope that the new Grand Vizier, Martha Hoffman, is able to steer the Sultan's empire to new glory in the 20th century.